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Tuesday, 18 December 2012

ArkiBoard Tips 17













ArkiBoard Tips 16











Monday, 17 December 2012

ArkiBoard Tips 15

ArkiBoard Tips 15

ArkiBoard Tips 14


1. The French version of the German Jugendstil.
a. Le Moderne Style
b. Art Nouveau
c. Modernismo
d. De Stijl

2. There are modern ways of suppressing earthquakes in terms of building design and innovation. But the traditional Filipino architecture had long before discovered this in the design of their homes. What is the traditional Filipino technique that could withstand earthquakes in the Philippines?
a. putting of rosaries and religious artifacts beneath the foundation.
b. putting stones that serve as rollers beneath the foundation.
c. making use of sturdy and heavy trunks of wood for column foundation.
d. bamboo posts running through roof connected on central apex.

3. What is the raw/natural material that traditional Filipino architecture used as motifs in the design of their homes?
a. egg shells
b. capiz shells
c. mud bricks
d. hand-cut stones

4. What is the main cause of migration from rural to urban places/cities?
a. opportunities in the city is greater.
b. presence of educational, health and recreational facilities in cities
c. tired of agricultural life
d. chances of meeting moviestars in cities

5. What is the purpose for the Bahay Kubo’s silong?
a. ventilation and drying of clothes
b. protection against animals
c. protection against animals
d. all of the above

6. Which is the most expensive?
a. a 9-hole golf course
b. a ½-hectare park/playground
c. a cable hanging bridge
d. an Olympic size pool

7. Which is the least expensive?
a. a 10-hole golf course
b. a ½ hectare park/playground
c. a cable hanging bridge
d. a 1000-meter water feature

8. Which is the correct statement regarding airflow in a room entry/exit?
a. air entering a small opening has greater airflow over a large opening
b. air entering a large opening has greater airflow over a small opening
c. it’s the same
d. it doesn’t matter

9. Given a site on a hilltop, which would you provide?
a. 3-m canopy
b. 5-m eaves
c. 4-m balcony
d. sunbreakers and sunshades

10. What can enhance the quality, texture, tone of construction detail and materials in a house?
a. artificial light
b. daylight saving lamp
c. natural light
d. all of the above

Tuesday, 11 December 2012

ArkiBoard Tips 13


1. The owner hired an electrician to prepare and install the electrical wiring for his house. The electrician, with the owner’s consent, decided to use a larger size of wiring for the circuit breaker to anticipate overloading. After some time, the house was on fire. After the investigation, it was proven that the cause of the fire was faulty wiring. What should have been done by the electrician to prevent the fire?
a. use the appropriate wiring capacity
b. none, his plans and actions were appropriate
c. studied more to become a Master Electrician and do better electrical plans
d. none of the above

2. Which flooring material is the MOST resilient?
a. vinyl sheets
b. linoleum
c. vinyl tiles
d. ceramic tiles

3. Which flooring material is the LEAST resilient?
a. vinyl sheets
b. linoleum
c. vinyl tiles
d. ceramic tiles

4. For a commercial establishment, what is the maximum height of curtain walls?
a. 4m
b. 2m
c. 3m
d. 5m

5. Given a government office building with a beam having a span of about 8.50m – 10.00m. What is the ideal column size at the 4th floor to support it?
a. 0.80 x 0.80
b. 1.00 x 1.00
c. 1.20 x 1.20
d. 1.60 x 1.60

6. What should be the size of a column at the ground floor if it has an 8m span?
a. 0.50m x 0.50m
b. 0.70m x 0.70m
c. 1.20m x 1.20m
d. 1.60m x 1.60m

7. What should be the size of a column at the fourth floor if it has an 8m span?
a. 0.50m x 0.50m
b. 0.70m x 0.70m
c. 1.20m x 1.20m
d. 1.60m x 1.60m

8. What type of foundation should be used so that the construction would not affect the adjacent structures?
a. pile/caisson
b. strip footing
c. sheet pile

9. What is the purpose of a fortress?
a. military installation
b. to protect the treasures
c. to protect the owner from enemy attack
d. public gateway

10. Basketball court orientation
a. N-S
b. E-W
c. NE-SW
d. NE-SE

ArkiBoard Tips 12


1. What shape of a theater should be avoided to prevent focus of sound?
a. irregular
b. rectangular
c. large curve space
d. domical

2. What is the recommended minimum thickness of an interior CHB wall without considering the plaster?
a. 0.10
b. 0.15
c. 0.20
d. 0.25

3. What is the recommended minimum thickness of an interior CHB wall considering the plaster?
a. 0.10
b. 0.15
c. 0.20
d. 0.25

4. What is the advantage of polybutylene over pvc pipes?
a. color
b. flexible
c. small diameter
d. cheap

5. A property owner wants to renovate his resort at the beachfront. He wants the construction to be fast. What is the most appropriate type of cladding for this kind of project?
a. aluminum cladding
b. pre-cast concrete
c. steel cladding
d. regular CHB

6. Which among the choices given is the best way to prevent sound transmission?
a. cavity wall
b. double wall
c. drywall with insulation
d. gypsum board

7. What type of switch will be used if a lighting fixture is to be used in 4 places?
a. 2 - 3way switch, 1 – 4way switch
b. 2 - 3way switch, 1 – 2way switch
c. 2 - 2way switch, 1 – 3way switch
d. 1 - 3way switch, 1 – 4way switch

8. The maximum length of a walkalator is 250 mtrs. What is the reason why it should be used for short runs only?
a. to allow users to exit at the sides
b. for maintenance and control
c. to allow reversal of directions

9. The owner hired an electrician to prepare and install the electrical wiring for his house. The electrician, with the owner’s consent, decided to use a larger size of wiring for the circuit breaker to anticipate overloading. After some time, the house was on fire. After the investigation, it was proven that the cause of the fire was faulty wiring. Why did the circuit breaker fail to detect the short circuit/overloading?
a. the circuit breaker is defective
b. the capacity of the wire is too large
c. the circuit breaker was too far away from where the short circuit happened
d. all of the above

10. The owner hired an electrician to prepare and install the electrical wiring for his house. The electrician, with the owner’s consent, decided to use a larger size of wiring for the circuit breaker to anticipate overloading. After some time, the house was on fire. After the investigation, it was proven that the cause of the fire was faulty wiring. Who should be blamed for the fire?
a. the electrician, he used a larger capacity for the wiring
b. the owner, he did not hire a professional and master electrician
c. none, some people are unfortunate
d. none, short circuits happen all the time.

Monday, 10 December 2012

ArkiBoard Tips 11

1. What type of roofing material that is oven-baked & is waterproofed?
a. shingles
b. tegula
c. long span
d. clay roof tiles

2. What is the best type of glass to use in shower stall?
a. wired
b. etched
c. textured
d. tempered

3. For a recording studio, what types of flooring is to be used and why?
a. wood
b.carpet
c. ceramic

4. Which is a Green architecture material? and why?
a. wood
b. aluminum
c. steel

5. Used to connect G.I roof to steel purlins?
a. self tapping screw
b. roof nail
c. machine bolt
d. expansion bolt

6. As a Project Manager for a 3-Storey Residence, you were told by the owner than he would like a finish on his fence to still show the CHB. What would you tell your foreman/mason to tidy up?
a. Soleras
b. Kostilyahes
c. Palitada
d. Kostura

7. What is a good color of roof in tropical country? why?
a. Dark green to black
b. Light red
c. Light brown

8. It relies on clean lines, smooth and polished surfaces, and few intricate details. It is not stark and cold, but _____________ is comfortable and spacious, without clutter?
a) art deco
b) minimalist design
c) contemporary design
d) oriental interiors

9. A paint defect which indicates imperfect adhesion of paint to the surface, with the film getting stripped off in a relatively large pieces due to application on damp or greasy surface
a. peeling
b. bleeding
c. alligatoring
d. cracking

10. Which is a neutral colour among the choices?
a) violet
b) ivory
c) blue
d) green


ArkiBoard Tips 10


1. In plumbing, a tapered coupling for joining a pipe or conduit to another of larger size? and Why?
a. Coupling
b. Bushing
c. Nipple
d. None of the above

2. A client awarded you to design a medium-end BPO Office to be located on existing residential with 1000 sqm floor area. This will be a fit-out renovation project. In consideration of the cables, what system will you use to conceal them?
a. Raised Flooring
b. On the ceiling
c. On Drywall

3. A client awarded you to design a medium-end BPO Office to be located on existing residential with 1000 sqm floor area. This will be a fit-out renovation project. If data are needed to be shared with others, what is appropriate?
a. LAN
b. Router
c. Intercom
d. Cellphone

4. A client awarded you to design a medium-end BPO Office to be located on existing residential with 1000 sqm floor area. This will be a fit-out renovation project. What communication system is used to link one office to another for a private dialogue?
a. PABX
b. Intercom
c. Fax Machine
d. Paging Sytem

5. A client awarded you to design a medium-end BPO Office to be located on existing residential with 1000 sqm floor area. This will be a fit-out renovation project. If data are needed to be amplified from the main server, what system is needed?
a. LAN
b. Router
c. PABX
d. Satellite

6. Refers to a concrete that is left in its natural state after formwork is removed especially when the concrete surface reflects the texture,joints and fasteners of board form.
a. precast concrete
b. cast-in-place
c betun brut
d. bushhammered
e. haute' couture

7. What kind of window is easy to cean? and Why?
a. Louver
b. Sliding Window
c. Casement
d. Awning

8. Minimum side lapping for corrugated G.I roofing?
a. 1 1/2"
b. 2"
c. 2 1/2"
d. 3"

9. A line shifted in a direction other than its intrinsic direction defines a ____?
a) volume
b)shape
c)plane
d) line

10. What is the most practical method to use if you will pour concrete for a 4 cu.m. slab & Explain...
a. manual mix
b. ready mix concrete
c. 2 bagger mixer
d.1 bagger mixer

ArkiBoard Tips 9


1. The toilet bathroom floor finish is designed to be at least one inch below the bedroom floor finish. What should be the vertical distance between the bedroom floor finish and the top line of the 2” x 6” yacal floor joists which carry the toilet bath floor system assuming that ¼” thick mosaic vitrified tiles will be used in the toilet bathroom on 4” RC slab with membrane waterproofing, using standard acceptable measurement of materials for residential houses.
a. 3 ½ inches 
b. 3 ¼ inches 
c. 6 ¼ inches 
d. 6 ¾ inches

2. Any pipe which conveys the discharge of water closet, urinal or fixtures having similar function, with or without the discharges from other fixtures to the building drain or building sewer.
a. Soil pipe
b. Waste pipe 
c. Building drain 
d. Building sewer

3. The maximum height and number of stories of every building shall be dependent upon the following: 
i.Character of occupancy --- iii. Environmental conditions --- ii.Type of construction --- iv. Capacity of public utility/service systems 
a. i, ii, iii 
b. i, iii, iv 
c. i, ii, iv 
d. i, ii, iii, iv

4. What is the height of the RC curtain wall surrounding a water tank located at the penthouse whose capacity is 5000 U.S. gallons. The diameter of the tank is 2.5 meters (I.D.) and freeboard of 0.30 meters. The wall shall be as high as the water tank. 
a. 4.00 meters 
b. 4.19 meters 
c. 4.16 meters 
d. 4.22 meters

5. Mr. Chua the owner of a 3 story luxurious house that was designed by you would like to have an additional 30.00 Sq. Mt. Detached greenhouse at the Rear side of the house.You were commissioned to do the project, do you need to secure building permit for the greenhouse?.
a. No, because it is part of the house contract.
b. Yes, because it exceeds the exempted area.
c. No, because greenhouse is exempted as per NBCP.
d. Yes, because it is Detached from the house.

6. What type of window is not recommended for high rise buildings??
a. hopper
b. pivoted
c. casement
d. awning

7. The location of a fire hose cabinet connected to a standpipe for buildings shall be at every floor level above the first floor at: 
a. storerooms
b. inside a mechanical/electrical room
c. a landing of an enclosed stairway 
d. at any private room or rentable space

8. It is the largest Doric Temple ever recorded in History?
a. The Great Temple of Ammon Karnak
b. Tempio di Giove Olimpico
c. Temple of Nike, Athens
d. The Great Temple of Abu-Simbel
e. Temple Run

9. He is often described as the most influential and the most copied architect of all time because of his works.,
a. Antonio Gaudi Y Cornet
b. Frank Lloyd Wright
c. Andrea Palladio
d. Frank Gehry
e. Leon Batista Alberti
f. Giacommo Baruzzi da Vignola

10. What do you call a column which is 4times larger than a normal column?
a. pedestal
b. planted column
c. pier
d. spiral column
e. rectangular column

ArkiBoard Tips 8


1. For Amenities, Facilities, Services and Utilities (AFSU) introduced, what is the primary priority?
a. Utilities, Amenities, Facilities, Services
b. Amenities, Facilities, Services and Utilities
c. Facilities, Amenities, Services and Utilities
d. Utilities, Services, Facilities and Amenities

2. Minimum end lapping for corrugated G.I roofing?(mm)
a. 300
b. 200
c. 250
d. 600

3. What type of joint is used to install a glass into a lite French window?
a. Dado
b. Rabbet
c. Tenon
d. Mortise

4. What is the color for Industrial in a Zoning Map?
a. Blue 
b. Violet 
c. Red 
d. Yellow

5. A mid-rise residential project of Mies van de Rohe was the? 
a. Lakeshore apartments
b. Seagram building
c. Serendra apartments
d. Seashore apartments

6. If the size of a concrete column on the ground floor is 1 mt. x 1 mt. What should be the size of the column on the 16th floor?
a. .90mt. X .90mt.
b. .60mt. X .60mt.
c. .30mt. X .30mt.
d. 1.20mt. X 1.20mt.

7. Using Eustyle intercolumniation which considered this by Vitruvius to be the best proportion, what will be the clear space between two columns of the temple?
a.) 2 x dia. of column
b.) 1 1/2 x dia. of column
c.) 2 1/4 x dia. of column
d.) 3 x dia. of column

8. The riser of a stair is 6 ½ inches. What is the run using formula R/T = tan (R-3) x 8 degrees 
a. 12.2247 inches 
b. 12.1000 inches 
c. 11.8975 inches 
d. 12. 1416 inches

9. It is the horizontal movement of a certain body or in a building the lateral movement of a particular floor because of too much exposure of the force hitting on it?
a. buckling
b. story drift
c. failure
d. settlement

10. Where will you start excavating if your project has 2- level basement and is located in a property surrounded by adjacent structure with one side accessible to a 12 meter wide Road?.
a. At the Front along the Road.
b. At the Center of the Property.
c. At the Rear Side of the Property.
d. At the Both Sides of the Property.

ArkiBoard Tips 7


1. The level of subterranean water.
a. house drain
b. water well
c. underground canal

2. Who should be held accountable for the damage of the appliances?
a. the driver, if they can find him
b. meralco
c. the electrical engineer or electrician who installed the wiring
system in the house the manufacturer of the appliances

3. What is the disadvantage of using precast concrete beams?
a. larger beam dephts
b. overtime, the beams tend to lose anchorage
c. weak concrete

4. Threaded fitting to join 2 threaded fittings as close as possible but not exceeding 3".
a. nipple
b. union
c. coupling
d. none of the above

5. Maximum length of cul-de-sac under BP220?
a. 120 mt.
b. 50 mt.
c. 60 mt.
d. 100 mt.

6. if the contractor makes claim for additional money due to extra work caused by unforseen circumstances, the arch. must respond within: 
a. 5days
b. 7days
c. 10days
d. not until supporting data are submitted

7. Terms used for 2 pumps interconnected with each other?
a. gang
b. series
c. battery
d. duplex

8. Parts of lockset, which is not included?
a. strike
b. knob
c. escutcheon
d. lace

9. A house designed by its owner, Thomas Jefferson, referring to as example of Greek classical revival.
a. Monticello
b. Villa Rotunda
c. State House
d. the Capitol

10. Best materials for exterior walls?
a. plyboard
b. 25mm plywood
c. HDF
d. gypsum

ArkiBoard Tips 6


1. Which of the following is NOT an executive position in a GOCC?
a. vice president
b. director 
c. division chief
d.assistant vice president

2. A female GI threaded pipe reducer fitting use to connect a reducing branch from a main water distribution.
a. bell reducer
b. tee reducer
c. elbow reducer
d. coupling reducer

3. Maximum slump for slabs, beams, columns?
a. 100mm
b. 120mm
c. 200mm
d. 150mm

4. What is added to concrete to alter its properties?
a. admixtures
b.retarder
c.plasticizer
d.accelerator

5. Pipe fitting to change one single direction (course) of the flow of water?
a. tee
b. Wye
c. cross tee
d. elbow

6. What is the ante-room to a larger apartment of a building called?
a. patio
b. vestibule
c. stall
d. portico

7. How many days prior to canceling an insurance be given to the owner stipulating the intention to cancel?
a.> 5 days
b.> 10 days
c.> 15 days
d.> 1 month

8. What is the smallest size of gutter?
a. 12"
b. 24"
c. 48"
d. None of the above

9. Pipe fitting to join 2 straight lengths of pipe?
a. coupling
b. nipple
c. tee
d. st. elbow

10. According to BP 344, the comfortable clearance for knee and leg space under tables for wheelchair users is?
a. 0.61 m.
b. 0.74 m.
c. 0.82 m.
d. 0.55 m.

ArkiBoard Tips 5

1. An office/firm has 10 staff and 1 manager's room with toilet, what is the BEST area in sq.mt for each staff.
a. 1.5 sq.mt.
b. 3.5 sq.mt
c. 1 sq.mt
d. 5 sq.m

2. Concrete slab should have a minimum concrete cover of:
a. 20mm
b. 40mm
c. 15mm
d. 30mm

3. Which among of the following is the most rigid frame?
a. canto mesa
b. rabetted
c. tenon and mortise
d. overlapping frame

4. Assuming the site will be on adobe soil, what foundation will you use?
a. Bored File
b. Sheet File
c. Isolated Footing
d. Footing With Tie Beam

5. Arrange the following mat'ls. from cheapest to most expensive that will cover a 1.2m x 1.2m area.
a. mactan tiles
b. pebble washout
c. 0.30 x 0.30 vitrified tiles
d. 0.60 x 0.60 granite tiles
e. bricks
f. boracay pebbles
g. adobe with piketa

6. A client wants to open a dance studio on the ground floor of a building. The existing room for the studio is fronting the road and the floor above is an office area. What materials should be used in the flooring?
a. Ceramic Tiles
b. Steel Decking
c. Wood Tiles
d. Vinyl Tiles (with wooden look)

7. A client wants to open a dance studio on the ground floor of a building. The existing room for the studio is fronting the road and the floor above is an office area. What materials should be used in the ceiling?
a. Suspended Acoustical Tiles
b. Steel Decking
c. Plywood
d. cement boards

8. What major component part functions to cool the condenser unit in a central airconditioning is?
a. chiller
b. air handling unit
c. fan and motor
d. cooling tower

9. What is the purpose of placing grout in between tiles?
a. for aesthetic
b. prevent the tiles from cracking in case of expansion the grout will be where the cracks would appear
c. marks the area to be chipped in case tiles will be replaced so as not to damage the other areas

10. What is the purpose for using a pebble wash finish with space in between?
a. prevent slipping
b. prevent creeping crack
c. prevent accumulation of dust
d. aesthetic only


Thursday, 6 December 2012

ArkiBoard Tips 4


1. An Architect suggested to the client that a blank wall in one of the portion of the lobby be provided with a mural painting. The client agreed and asked the ARCHITECT to present a design for the mural painting. The Architect hired a popular painter to make the concept design. Who will pay for the services of the mural painter?
a. Architect
b. Already included in the fees of the architect
c. Client
d. To be decided by the arbitration

2. For a 3- storey building that is intended for a senior citizen center with limited budget and space, what is the most appropriate type of elevator?
a. hydraulic elevator
b. traction elevator
c. stretcher accessible
d. none 3-storey building does not need an elevator

3. Da Vignola built one of the most magnificent renaissance palace, recalling Hadrian's mausoleum in mass and outline, while the circular internal court suggest the Colosseum, Rome.
a. Capitol, Rome
b. Ducai Palace
c. Palazzo Farnese
d. Villa of Pope Julius, RM

4. What are advertising signs according to PD 1096?
a. signs perpendicular or at an angle from the wall surface
b. off-premise signs
c. signs parallel to the wall surface
d. panels for posting bills or posters

5. When fabricating sound insulation panels, which of the following methods will best produce a good insulating panel.
a. attached the absorbent material rigidly into the frame
b. attach the absorbent material to the frame so as to provide air space
c. attach the absorbent material rigidly along the sides while still providing air space

6. Which design elements could be used to lower the apparent height of a ceiling?
a. A dark , highly textured ceiling
b. Strong horizontal line on the walls
c. Fine-grained patterns on the ceiling and dark walls
d. A light ceiling and textured walls

7. It serves as a protection against extremes in temperature. A bank of earth is placed against one or more exterior walls of a building.
a. drum wall
b. berm
c. sun control
d. trombe wall

8. What is not a rule of thumb in designing a drainage?
a. as much as possible pipes must run in straight line
b. underground drainage line should be on top of compacted soil
c. it should be underneath the driveway

9. Assuming the site will be on adobe soil, what foundation will you use?
a. Bored File
b. Sheet File
c. Isolated Footing
d. Footing With Tie Beam

10. Which type of glass will you recommend if you want to keep the heat away from the inside of the structure?
a. double glazed with suspended film and low-emissivity?
b. single glass
c. triple insulating glass
d. double glazed glass with 1/4 inch airspace
e. both a and d

ArkiBoard Tips 3

1. Why rags should not be left beside the can of paints at a job site especially during night time when it is most likely to be unattended?
a. it will increase humidity
b. it might ignite a fire
c. it will absorb moisture and affect the paint
d. rags will be stolen when unattended

2. What is the most common alternative for plywood? It is made out of silica with binders and is highly weather resistant.
a. gypsum board
b. ficemboard
c. ceramic tile
d. asphalt board

3. What is not included in computation of reinforced concrete load?
a. floor finish
b. slab
c. beam
d. column

4. When a surface is uneven and cannot be totally flattened, what is the best paint to use to hide the uneven surface?
a. semi-gloss
b. glossy
c. eggshell
d. flat paint

5. What is the most common profile of a tile trim?
a. flat
b. square
c. quarter round
d. half round

6. Proposed the Latin-Cross Plan of St. Peter Rome
a. Domenico Fontana
b. Baldassare Peruzzi
c. Rapael
d. Bernini
e. Vignola

7. Which is NOT a part of a lightning arrester?
a. down conductor
b. transmitter
c. earthen material
d. lightning rod

8. Which among the following is a component of modular kitchen system?
a. splash board
b. marble counter top
c. laminated fiberboard
d. concealed hinges

9. What does slenderness ratio determine?
a. effective length
b. buckling
c. effective depth
d. maximum height of column

10. One of the world's greatest painter and the architect of distinction, he designed the Palazzo Pandolfini, Florence.
a. Michelangelo
b. Giulio Romano
c. Raphael Santi
d. Pirro Ligorio

Tuesday, 27 November 2012

June 2013 Architect Licensure Exam Schedule of Review Classes


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email; uapcommuniation@yahoo.com

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DESIGN: P3,500.00
REFRESHER: P3,500.00
DISCOUNTS TO FULL PAYMENTS AND FULL COURSE
RESERVATION FEE: P1,000.00
LIMITED TO 60 SLOTS PER SECTION ONLY.

ArkiBoard Tips 2

1. What major component part functions to cool the condenser unit in a central airconditioning system?
a. chiller
b. air handling unit
c. fan and motor
d. cooling tower

2. What is the purpose of placing grout in between tiles?
a. for aesthetic
b. prevent the tiles from cracking in case of expansion the grout will be where the cracks would appear
c. marks the are to be chipped in case tiles will be replaced so as not to damage the other areas

3. The dome of the US capitol in washington DC was patterned from the dome of what renaissance masterpiece?
a. st. peter's basilica
b. florence cathedral
c. st. paul's cathedral
d. the tempietoo

4. What is the purpose for using a pebble wash finish with space in between?
a. prevent slipping
b. prevent creeping crack
c. prevent accumulation of dust
d. aesthetic only

5. Under BP 220, what is the minimum clear height of bathroom doors?
a. 1.80 m
b. 2.00 m
c. 1.71 m
d. 1.90 m

6. Which of the following is NOT an executive position at GOCC?
a. vice president
b. director
c. division chief
d.assistant vice president

7 . Your architectural team is designing a 3-storey hospital. Which fire suppression system is not integrated in the building?
a. Wet Standpipe
b. Dry Standpipe
c. Fire extinguisher
d. Sprinkler

8. Your architectural team is designing a 3-storey hospital. How many dry standpipes will be used?
a. 3
b. 2
c. 0
d. 1

9. A female GI threaded pipe reducer fitting use to connect a reducing branch from a main water distribution.
a. bell reducer
b. tee reducer
c. elbow reducer
d. coupling reducer

10. Maximum slump for slabs, beams, columns?
a. 100mm
b. 120mm
c. 200mm
d. 150mm

ArkiBoard Tips 1

1. An Architect suggested to the client that a blank wall in one of the portion of the lobby be provided with a mural painting. The client agreed and asked the ARCHITECT to present a design for the mural painting. The Architect hired a popular painter to make the concept design. Who will pay for the services of the mural painter?
a. Architect
b. Already included in the fees of the architect
c. Client
d. To be decided by the arbitration

2. Daylight type of Lighting is applicable in what type of project?
a. bakery
b. textile manufacturing
c. furniture display
d. exterior landscaping

3. What place was the co-called University Belt in Manila?
a. espana
b. makati
c. recto
d. bicol

4. During the summer holidays, a couple decided to have their house repaired. They acquired the services of Architect "A" for this project. However they specifically asked Architect "A" to give the roofing repairs to their father who happens to be a roof contractor. Everything went well until the rains came. Now, the house is flooding and leaks coming everywhere. The couple asked Architect "A" to repair the defects but the Architect refused. Who is liable for the damages?
a. Architect "A", he should have checked the work of the roofing contractor.
b. The Roofing Contractor, he was the one who repaired the roof.
c. The Couple, they were the one who asked that their father do it.
d. No one, because it was nature which caused the leaks.

5. Which of the ff. should not be located in a carport?
a. storage cabinet
b. hose reel
c. dog cage
d. flower pots

6. What type of architecture is depicted by the national museum of modern art?
a. neo classical
b. formalism
c. renaissance
d. gothic

7. A client wants to open a dance studio on the ground floor of a building. The existing room for the studio is fronting the road and the floor above is an office area. What materials should be used in the flooring?
a. Ceramic Tiles
b. Steel Decking
c. Wood Tiles
d. Vinyl Tiles (with wooden look)

8. A client wants to open a dance studio on the ground floor of a building. The existing room for the studio is fronting the road and the floor above is an office area. What materials should be used in the ceiling?
a. Suspended Acoustical Tiles
b. Steel Decking
c. Plywood
d. slab soffit

9. What does slenderness ratio determine?
a. effective length
b. buckling
c. effective depth
d. maximum height of column

10. The Philippine post office in Manila designed by Arch. Arellano is in what style?
a. post modern
b. classical revival
c. art deco
d. romanesque

Friday, 23 November 2012

October 2012 (Middle East) Architect Board Exam Results

The Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) announces that 207 out of 397 passed the Architect's Licensure Examination (FLEA) given by the Board of Architecture in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Al-Khobar and Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and in Doha, Qatar last October 2012.

The members of the Board of Architecture who gave the licensure examination are Arch. Armando N. Alli, Chairman; Arch. Angeline T. Chua Chiaco and Arch. Marietta B. Segovia, Members.




Roll of Successful Examinees in the
ARCHITECT LICENSURE EXAMINATION – MIDDLE EAST
Held on OCTOBER 25 & 26, 2012
Released on NOVEMBER 23, 2012
Seq. No. N a m e

1 ABIAN, CARLO MAGNO MIRANDA
2 ACAR, ANNA VANESSA DAGSA
3 AL-MUHSIN, JASSIM JAMAL WAJE
4 ALBERASTINE, ALLISTER JOSEPH PIL
5 ALIPASPAS, VICENTE DULGUIME
6 AMBROCIO, JOCELYN IMMACULATA
7 ANTONIO, EDUARDO AGUALLO
8 ARITALLA, MAISA PADERES
9 ASCUETA, JUVY LEYSAN
10 ASILO, MARISTER CARINAL
11 AÑ, JESSIE ELLEMA
12 BALMOCENA, ARIEL TORRES
13 BANDOLA, HELEN GRACE GIGANTE
14 BARACENA, EDGAR II DOROTAN
15 BARBA, BRYAN VINCENT OFIANA
16 BAUTISTA, LADY DIANA NIALLA
17 BELIGON, ALLAIN PAUL ESTUAR
18 BELIGON, ROCHELLE MOJICA
19 BERMOY, JOE HARLEY MENDOZA
20 BERNALES, EDINYL MALOLOT
21 BERNARDEZ, SATURNINO JR BRIONES
22 BERTOLDO, ELEAZAR JAY-JAY TOBIAS
23 BONALOS, FRANCIS RAÑA
24 CABANTOC, VIRGILIO BALDO
25 CAHILIG, JOAN PAULINE OCHARAN
26 CALAMLAM, JUANITO JR DE ROMAS
27 CANCICIO, ALEXANDER RAMOS
28 CANILLO, ADA BLANCA
29 CAPATI, RANDY GATDULA
30 CAPINPIN, GRANT SHERWIN CEDEÑO
31 CAPOY, EUFEMIO JR CALDERON
32 CARBAJOSA, ELIZALDE CASIPONG
33 CARBONELL, CHUCK NEAL FAJARITO
34 CARREON, JEFFREY TIGLAO
35 CASTRO, BRYAN CEAZAR ZAPANTA
36 CATIBOG, ARMANDO III ATIENZA
37 CELERIO, JOY CRISTINA DEFEO
38 CHICO, PAZ XENIA CALDIT
39 CLORIBEL, QUINT MICHAEL JARAULA
40 CONSUEGRA, ERWIN RAYRAY
41 CONSUL, CHENO ESTRELLA
42 COSTUNA, CHRISTIAN ROYCE PANGAN
43 CRUZ, DINDO MALAQUILLA
44 CRUZ, FROILAN FRANCIA
45 CRUZ, MARK DIGA
46 CRUZ, PRISCILLA RAMOS
47 CUETO, MARK ANTHONY CUETO
48 CUETO, ROLAND LEAL
49 CUNA, MARIA VIOLETA DACULLA
50 CUNANAN, JETHRO IBE
51 CUNANAN, LEADYMYRRH CRUZ
52 CUYO, RODEL QUISQUIRIN
53 DACAYANAN, MACARIO JR BERNABE
54 DANCEL, RUPERTO GIRAO
55 DATU, CHARLEMAGNE NACPIL
56 DAVID, EMMANUEL VELASCO
57 DE CASTRO, ELMAR FAJARDO
58 DE CASTRO, ERWIN ROMEL LACSON
59 DE GUZMAN, MICHAEL PAUL SALONGA
60 DE LEON, BIENVENIDO JR MARASIGAN
61 DE LEON, ISMAEL DARANG
62 DE VERA, NEIL JHON SALUDARES
63 DELA CRUZ, ERNEST KRISTOPHER CALINGASAN
64 DELA CRUZ, KIMBERLYN RONQUILLO
65 DELA PEÑA, CONRADO VINUYA
66 DELANTAR, RINGO STARR DEITA
67 DELEONIO, JEZAR DOLAR
68 DEMEGILLO, CHARLES III MELITON
69 DEMERIN, RENEBERT CADIENA
70 DEROCA, CLINT BORDON
71 DESPABILADERAS, HARRY DIALOGO
72 DIMAL, CHRISTIAN GARCIA
73 DIZON, MARIA CRISTINA OBLEADA
74 DOBLADO, JOSE CLEMENTE URETA
75 DOLORITO, JOVITO FORDELON
76 DORADO, PAUL REGINE MONTEFALCON
77 ENCALLADO, ARLAND RAMOS
78 ESCOBAR, RODEL TUBIL
79 ESPALLARDO, JOSE PAULO FLORES
80 ESQUILON, JOHN VIC BALALLO
81 ESTRADA, BERNARDO CLIMACOSA
82 FABILLON, JEROME LAFUENTE
83 FAELNAR, RICHARD
84 FAJARDO, MARC ANTER FANGON
85 FERNANDEZ, JOSUE PANTI
86 FERNANDEZ-CASTILLO, JOANALYN BERMUDEZ
87 FERNANDO, ANTHONY VALDEZ
88 FIGUEROA, RUSSEL AVENIDO
89 FLOR, LORMA MESA
90 FLORES, EMMANUEL LELIS
91 FORBES, RICHARD ARDINES
92 GAAC, RAY MARTIN MONTOJO
93 GARCE, ARMANDO III BUCIO
94 GARCIA, TEDDY DELA PEÑA
95 GARI, MARLON TOCMO
96 GIMAO, JOHN AUGUSTUS FERRERAS
97 GONZALES, DENMAR AMBOY
98 GONZALES, LIZZA DELOS REYES
99 GONZALES, NICANDRO JR OCAMPO
100 GRAY, BERNARDO DE MESA
101 GUEVARRA, JON JON LAYA
102 GUINTU, ROBINSON SICAT
103 HAO, GRANT LAWRENCE CO
104 HIPOLITO, JANEL SARMIENTO
105 IBARRA, VIRGO CELZO
106 IBAÑEZ, RICHARD VALDELLON
107 IGCAS, GINLY NABO
108 ISIP, ANGELITO JR SALENGUA
109 JOSE, RONALDO VILLANUEVA
110 LAGMAN, JOYCE ANNE REYES
111 LEGUTAN, MAITAROVI MAMORNO
112 LIBUT, ALBERTO VICENTE ALBANO
113 LIM, PAOLO NEPOMUCENO
114 LIM, RANDY ROTOR
115 LITERAL, EMIL ABITRIA
116 LOPEZ, SAMUEL SACEDON
117 LUA KING, MARIA LOURDES TOGONON
118 LUCES, RONALDO BACHILLER
119 LUMIDO, SAJI ARCEGA
120 MACALINO, EGBERT SUSI
121 MAGCALAYO, MARCO ATIENZA
122 MAKILING, DENE CARL PEDRAGOSA
123 MANALANG, JAY BINUYA
124 MANILA, MARLON MARCHA
125 MARTINEZ, PAULO TUGONON
126 MATEO, REINVILLE CATOLOS
127 MEDINA, JACKSON SANGUYO
128 MEJARITO, ROMEO TARUSAN
129 MENDOZA, LAWRENCE SALVADOR
130 MENDOZA, SONIA LUMANGLAS
131 MINA, JEFFERSON BAYLE
132 MISA, ANGEL JR FERNANDEZ
133 MUEDA, ARNALDO PABALINAS
134 NERY, JULLEE ANNE CADITE
135 NOLASCO, RAY CHRISTOPER DEL VALLE
136 NORIEGA, CERISSE JOAN DE VILLA
137 OBEJERA, ROLANDO DIAZ
138 OLIQUIANO, ERNESTO IV ROMERO
139 ONGKIKO, FRANCISCO JR RAMOS
140 OPULENCIA, NIÑO GARCIA
141 PABALAN, FERNANDO TEÑOSO
142 PAGCALIWAGAN, CHRISTIAN DESTREZA
143 PAILDEN, BENEDICTO CORAZA
144 PARAN, ARTHUR JR PANGILINAN
145 PARTOSA, STANFER EBREO
146 PILARE, JOSE JR HERNANDEZ
147 PONCE, JOYETTE NOCUM
148 PREGLO, JOBE COMENDADOR
149 QUERO, MIKE VINCENT RONDON
150 QUINITO, MA LENA FRANCISCO
151 RABENA, EDWIN VILLARINE
152 RAMOS, MELANI SUNGA
153 RAMOS, NANCY RUIZ
154 REBANCOS, RUBI ROSA RAMOS
155 REBURIANO, ALEXIS JR LEDDA
156 REBUSTILLO, DOROTEO TOLOSA
157 REGINIO, RUEL FANER
158 RESURRECCION, ROMMEL DAVID
159 REYES, ALFREDO JR NATIVIDAD
160 RICOHERMOSO, SERGIO FIDELINO
161 RIVERA, ERIKSON SUAREZ
162 ROBLEDO, LEONILA VIRGINIA
163 ROJAS, ARIEL SEVILLA
164 RONQUILLO, ARLAN DIZON
165 ROQUE, RONALDO TANDOC
166 RULLEPA, VIRGILIO SORRAL
167 SALANGO, DIANA UMBAY
168 SALUNGA, ROWIN RAMOS
169 SALVADOR, CARLO GO
170 SANTIAGO, ARMANDO PARAISO
171 SANTIAGO, ARTURO JR SANGLE
172 SECHICO, CHRISTOPHER ABEAR
173 SERRANTES, JERIMA JIMENEZ
174 SESBREÑO, RICARDO HERBILLA
175 SIBAYAN, KRISTINE JOY DELA CRUZ
176 SILADES, DENNIS LITO
177 SITYAR, JOHN NOEL ESPIRITU
178 SORIANO, GREGORIO DEMAFELIS
179 SUCGANG, MA CECILIA BAUTISTA
180 SUGUITAN, MARK GIL MARTINEZ
181 SUMODOBILA, MARRYFELL GANUB
182 SURIGAO, EDILYN LERIT
183 TABIN, ANDRES NAVARRO
184 TAMAYOSA, RICKY TAÑECA
185 TANA, APRIL DAWN BENZON
186 TANGCO, RAECKEL QUIRANTE
187 TASARRA, JAIME JR BAYTA
188 TAÑALA, ANWAR YUTOB
189 TAÑO-AN, DOMINGO AGUILAR
190 TIGLAO, EMMANUEL OCAMPO
191 TIMAJO, JOHN GERALD DELA CRUZ
192 TOLENTINO, SILVINO JR SANTIAGO
193 TRANSFIGURACION, MARY JANE GACUTAN
194 TUMULAK, YVONNE PAYOSAN
195 VALERIO, MARX MARTILLANA
196 VALIENTES, RAFAEL MAGNO
197 VARGAS, ROBERT RIVERA
198 VARGAS, ROLLY HIDALGO
199 VELASCO, EDUARDO AGULAN
200 VICENTE, LAURENCE RAGO
201 VILLAMER, JULIUS GIOCA
202 VILLAREAL, CHRIS ERNIE OSEA
203 VILLEGAS, DANTE DANSECO
204 VIRTUCIO, ERICA KRYSTELLE ZULUETA
205 ZAFRA, LUIGI ANGELO JOSE
206 ZAMORA, FROILAN NEPOMUCENO
——NOTHING FOLLOWS———

Successful examinee in the OCTOBER 2012
ARCHITECT LICENSURE EXAMINATION – MIDDLE EAST
whose REGISTRATION shall be DEFERRED pending
compliance with some registration requirements:
Seq. No. N a m e
1 MILANES, MICHAEL LAMBINA
———-NOTHING FOLLOWS————-

Wednesday, 14 November 2012

Refresher Schedule for January 2013 LEA

Here's the schedule for the Refresher Review Course at the UAP Center for Career Development.
Course Fee: P3,500.00
Pls. reserve now thru Ms. Gigi at tel. nos. 02-4126364

Friday, 28 September 2012

Climate – Adaptive Architecture in the Philippines


Passive Design with Natural Light and Air: Crucial Component of Change in the Cityscape
By: Ar. Jorge M. Mission Ph.D. UAP
(This article is written as an advocacy of UAP Mt Kanla-on Chapter (UAPMK) on its GREEN EARTH BLUE SKY agenda on environment and a contribution to the celebration of the 2012 World Day of Architecture with the theme “Architects are City Changers”. UAPMK is also assisting the Department of Energy –Visayas Field Office in disseminating the Guidelines on Energy Conserving Design of Buildings through its Information , Education ,and Communication Campaign (IECC) in implementing the country’s Energy Reform Agenda.)

Primary Points 

Climate change has been an issue affecting human all over the globe today. It affects all spheres of human life –social , economic , political , cultural , and other personal human activities . Evident enough in the climate patterns , unstable temperature and its threat to human comfort , trigger challenges on creative ways for possible recovery of the lost resources of the earth in order to restore a greener earth and a bluer sky. Alternative approaches for a clean energy , reduction of carbon emission, new technology on renewable energy ,and the like ,continuously evolve. Information, education, and communication campaign has always become a program of private and government institutions. 

Architectural edifices in the Philippines are not excluded from the phenomena. On – going challenges in building designs confront architects , and allied professionals to design buildings that are considered “green”. Creative approaches are openly called for effective design models. Energy efficiency and conservation in building designs are also the current focus and priority for a more functional facility and with the use of sustainable resources. Hence , building components are affected by the disastrous effects of climate change , - structural framings and foundation has to consider earthquakes; roofing and wall materials needs to resist heat ; openings and other innovative designs shall be provided with air and light ventilation and; and
vegetations or shrubberies for landscape entourage can be effective means for carbon sequestration or give its share in the carbon sink. 

Eventually, these primary points will contribute in the change of cityscapes on Philippine architecture when building designs shall exploit obtainable and existing potential sources of energy .The use of natural light and air ventilation is significant enough to influence an impact in the conservation of energy. In addition, benefits of natural ventilation are numerous enough – from low maintenance and consumable cost, less hygiene problems, and psychological benefit of connectedness to nature. Architects , engineers and allied professionals are duty-bound to put into effect climate-adaptive designs and building technologies that will benefit clients , the community and stakeholders of the profession. 

One of the concerns in celebrating the WDA is that, “Architects will play a crucial role in evolution by their capacity to meet the challenges of global urban sustainability and develop the tools needed to create resilient and sustainably liveable cities.” Further it is moving towards
“mitigating climate change, reducing polluting emissions, and better management of resources and energy.” Further , it aims for the structuring of cities ,to be socially inclusive , accessible and equitable , eliminating discrimination and precarious housing ; developing cities that can resist crises and cataclysms, whether natural or induced by man ; developing economic, educational and creative opportunities for all; and ensuring the security and sanitary conditions vital to all individuals. The following are noteworthy information, principles and concepts highlighting some salient provisions from the DOE Guidelines on Conservation on Building Designs (DOE-GECDB). Understanding these matters could help architects address issues confronting climate change by putting into concrete practice Passive Control approach as they integrate them in the design of buildings and other related architectural projects. 


The Philippine Climate 

According to Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Philippines have a Tropical Rainforest Climate with two (2) seasons – wet and dry. Dry season starts mid- November and ends up to mid of May. Cool and ocean breezes start on November up to the end of February. March to May as the hottest month and followed by a wet season from June to October being hot and humid. April and May has the hottest temperature from 28°C (83°F) up to 38°C (100°F) and rainfall varies but a rain year –round in most place of southern Luzon. An average temperature of 25.5°C (78°F) is during January as the coldest month. 

Pagasa records there are 20 (or even more ) typhoons or “bagyos” across the country lasting for three (3) to four (4) days. Normally after downpours of heavy rain during nights and early mornings, steamy and sunny days follow on wet season. 

There are 4 types of seasons: Type I-Two pronounced seasons: dry from November to April, wet during the rest of the year; Type II-No dry season with very pronounced rainfall from November to January. ; Type III-Seasons are not very pronounced; relatively dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year. ; Type IV-Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed through the year. 


The Thermal Human and Visual Comfort 

The climatic condition of the country is much affecting the built-environment of any region. Due to this, thermal human comfort and good lighting or proper Illumination from natural light source in non-air conditioned buildings and spaces are called for in order to produce energy conserving architectural designs , appropriate engineering , and aesthetically sound buildings of any type –residential, commercial, religious, public and private institutions, and the like. Thermal human comfort is directly affected with solar heat , and in fact to some extent will affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Good natural light ventilation could serve good and healthy visual comfort to the user, however be noted that only with effective means of control or devices shall be provided in order to retain acceptable temperature and evade the increase of solar heat gain to create thermal discomfort. 

The DOE-GECDB gives the general principles of thermal comfort. It enumerates the main variables that affect human comfort as to the following: dry bulb temperature; relative humidity or wet bulb temperature; air movement; ventilation; and thermal radiation from hot surface (ceiling, walls, and glass window). It also includes indoor air quality.These variables are significant inputs to consider in the building design process. 

1. Dry bulb temperature, usually referred as “air temperature”, is one consideration in a building that is affecting the interior environment. Air temperature affects human comfort. When heat discomfort occurs , cooling is necessary. This means that the use of power or motor gadgets, equipments or appliances will depend on the heat gain accumulated within the room or space that requires high cooling requirement in hot environment. Therefore, the lower the air temperature, the less necessary in the use of these energy consuming equipments in order to cool the place. In an actual experiment in the locality of Bacolod City, outdoor dry bulb temperature marks 42°C at 1:00 pm , and for indoor bulb temperature is 33°C at 2:30 pm . An early morning indoor temperature at 6:00 am could get 27°C so far. If an indoor temperature could only be maintained at average of 27°C for the rest of daytime, possibly electric bill will become lower and shall be meaningful. 

2.Relative Humidity or wet-bulb temperature , an indication of the amount of moisture in the air, is another factor to look into in achieving thermal comfort. The recommended humidity level to achieve the most comfortable environment is 40% –50 % , nevertheless, a range from 30% to 60% will also be acceptable . However ,in comparison to the DOE-GECDB , the 60% relative humidity is already the maximum for air conditioned buildings where 50% shall serve as the minimum. 

3.Air movement adds another function in achieving thermal comfort in the design of building at the same time to cause energy conservation. Building orientation on the windward side where the source of wind comes from , shall be the basis of site planning. Leeward , the opposite side of the windward , is understood as a better position where the building could release hot air. Air movement in warm or humid conditions can cause heat loss without any change in air temperature. 

Effective entry or inlets (infiltration for air leakage) of air could be achieved when openings of the structure are well oriented to the windward side as it gets positive wind pressure. Exit or outlets (exfiltration for air leakage) of air will always be effective when openings are also provided on the leeward side as it generates negative wind pressure. Air movement significantly contributes to air circulation inside the building in terms of air change depending on the type of buildings. Usually air change depends on , coefficient of discharge (Ce or effectiveness of opening , 0.5 -0.6 for perpendicular wind ,and 0.25 -0.30 for diagonal wind ), area of opening ,and wind velocity. Generally , a space may need (four) 4 air change per hour. 

4.Ventilation -Natural light and air : Thermal comfort will always be the consideration especially in hot and humid country like Philippines. For energy conserving designs, natural ventilation could help ease the warm environment with sufficient supply of air. “In order to breathe air, a human being needs 21 % of oxygen.” When a ventilation rate drops below the level of 16.5 %, a person will lose consciousness. Interior space must be very well ventilated not only in terms air but also with light. 

The DOE guideline states that “as a general rule, ventilation rate of 2.8 m3/min to 5.7 m3/min per person is adequate in practice if the average indoor air temperature rise of not more than 14 ºC is to be maintained as a result of body heat. Where power-driven and other heat sources are present, a higher ventilation rate is necessary.” 

Further DOE-GECGB address the aspect on –Natural Ventilation by Window Opening:” The influence on the size of windows on the internal air movement depends to a great extent on whether a room is cross-ventilated. If a window is located on one wall of a room, its size has a little effect on the internal air velocity. However, an even distribution of windows, and the correct choices of sashes, will help to improve the ventilation even the windows are located in one wall. 

Two natural air ventilation types of method could be integrated in the design process, -the stack effect, and the wind-induced method. Stack effect may only be effective when openings are available at higher heights where hot air inside the room can be released. Due to buoyancy effect hot air rises up because it is less dense than cool air. 

Effectivity of cross ventilation happens when two walls are provided with openings. Even by experience, extent of its effectivity however is also affected by orientation of the building to avail prevailing winds, the shape of the structure, uninterrupted airflow from outside, and to a lesser extent, the arrangement of rooms and the position of interior partitions. No how matter a room could be well ventilated, it has to be noted that Heat Index, the human-perceived equivalent temperature, could still effect. Possibly, when the temperature is 90 °F (32 °C) with very high humidity, the heat index can be about 105 °F (41 °C). 

Provisions for natural ventilation and lighting in the DOE-GECDB states that, “in natural regulations, it is specified that every building shall be provided with: natural lighting by means of windows, skylights, fan-lights, doors, and other approved natural light transmitting media; and natural ventilation by means of windows, skylights, fanlights, doors, louvers or similar ventilation openings.” 

5. Thermal radiation and the Overall Thermal Transfer Value: Heat gain inside the building is always brought by thermal radiation or heat conduction received by the building envelope such as opaque external walls, glass windows, opaque roof, and skylight. An architect and his allied professionals, must have sufficient data of materials and their characteristics , mechanical or chemical properties , in order to know what materials to specify whether it could contribute or avoid heat gain by conduction of building component in terms of “U” value (a measure of how much heat will pass through a thermal object), or “R” value, (resistance to heat flow). The guidelines specify that, in the case of a non-air-conditioned building, any external wall abutting a habitable room shall have U-value of not more than 3.5 W/m2ºK. 

The Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) of the building envelope determines the quality of the building whether it is energy conserving or energy efficient. Although the OTTV is normally used for air--conditioned buildings, it would be a guiding principle in the architectural design process to consider natural ventilation. 

DOE-GECDB elaborates that OTTV concept means, “the solar heat gain through building envelope constitutes a substantial share of heat load in a building, which will have to be eventually absorbed by the air-conditioning system at the expense of energy input. To minimize solar heat gain into a building is therefore the first and foremost consideration in the design of energy efficient building. The architectural techniques used to achieve such purpose are too numerous to mention. Siting and orientation of a rectangular building to avoid exposure of its long facades to face east and west, for instance, is a simple means of reducing solar heat gain if the building sites permits. Appropriate choice of building shape to minimize building envelope area and selection of light colors for wall finish to reflect solar radiation are other common sense design alternatives to lower solar heat input.” 

6. Indoor Air Quality: Passive design with natural air and light contributes to indoor air quality. Humidity control and ventilation already mentioned earlier are also affecting indoor air quality. Other aspects are filtration level, sanitation, and odor. Filtration level concerns with the level of respirable particle (smoke, dust, etc.) found in the place. Presence of bacteria, molds, and viruses cause sanitation problems, while unsatisfactory odors are brought by volatile organic compounds (paints, pesticides, cleaning liquids) shall be avoided. It will take effective number of air change to remove these pollutants to maintain a habitable indoor air quality. 


Being “Green” and Natural 

There are other attributes to describe what a Green House , a Green Building or any of its components - eco-friendly; environment friendly; sustainable building; eco–architecture; green architecture, green engineering , green technology etc...To certain extent, it can also be attributed to a “natural building” ,although it differs in terms of technology application. Buildings and houses in order to be labeled as green and natural, must always give visible effect in terms of energy conservation and energy efficiency. Green rating systems are established; standards and labeling for household appliances; energy management; energy audit; and recognition awards are advocated to promote energy conservation and efficiency. A new Enercon Law is also expected. 

Sufficient definitions were already established in other venues in understanding what a green building ,a house or structure is. However, the definition by Engr. Nestor Archival may be easier to understand that could summarize the information discussed earlier. Archival, who topped the Pitong Pinoy Awards, describes a GREEN HOUSE as “the structure and the environs that shelter, protect, and nurture life. It is the habitat for safe, healthy and happy living. It is a house where one can breathe clean air; a house that is not too cold and not too warm; a house that is not too humid and too dry; a house that gets light from the sun during the day; a house that can let air move in and out as desirable; a house that conserves water and energy; a house that
was constructed with mostly local materials, some of which may be reused or recycled; a house conducive to sustainable living.” 


Passive Control Approaches and Design Possibilities. 

There are possible approaches in order to apply Passive control in buildings and houses. The utilization of natural resources and potential energies of the locality must be first utilized in order to avoid or lessen the use of any mechanical means of ventilation, yet retains comfort benefits to the occupant. 

By professional judgement, natural light and natural air ventilation, and the Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) of buildings are closely correlated. They are symbiotic in terms of thermal comfort at the same time affecting lighting and visual qualities of space as well. This would mean that every building component as a channel of solar heat gain causing the generation of overall thermal transfer inside the building space must be given attention. This would even consider from the very start of site selection to site planning and development as part of the building design process. 

In site selection, whether in the urban or rural area , off-site factors and its context are initial parameters to consider ,like wind direction and pressure , solar orientation , adjacent buildings , outdoor temperature, flood history , noise ,smell and others are essential in the design process. The location of a structure will influence much the quality of building design and an advantage for new projects especially during the pre-design phase. Energy conserving building design starts from site selection. Retrofitting may only be a solution for old buildings.Studying the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) of a place, may help in choosing a practical building location while places adapting New Urbanism or Ebenezer Howard’s Garden Cities of Tomorrow , may benefit claims of these planning concepts in greening the structure.
In the case for site development planning, the shape of a building and its exposure to solar heat shall be given attention. Shorter side exposed to sun is best to avoid accumulation of heat through solar radiation on walls and windows. In addition, trees, shrubs, flora and of other type of vegetation that will cover the building will prevent solar heat from entering the building.
For buildings, external walls, roof, windows, skylights, are components of building envelop that determines the Overall Thermal Transfer Value. Generally, using appropriate materials with effective heat resistance from a direct solar radiation will prevent if not reduce heat gain. Type of roofing materials, innovative strategies, provisions of adequate ventilation, insulation, are crucial features of design adaptations. The use of skylights can always help save energy while harnessing the power of the sun for lighting the space. 

The type of materials and performance of external walls to serve as thermal mass in absorbing thermal energy , the method of construction to be used for external walls, a well- arranged location of openings for air or wind infiltration are a productive design approaches. Installation of an appropriately -sized windows to allow natural air for cross ventilation and type of windows specified whether awning; jalousie; sliding, or maybe louvered, would help direct or redirect the
wind for proper building ventilation. Sun shading or hot daylight blocking can be introduced through window canopies , overhangs , outer screen , or trellis . In addition glass windows can prevent or minimize effects of solar radiation through glass films or interior blinds. When possible ,sunscreen shall be provided at the exterior side of windows. Much favourable technique when interior walls shall be provided with cuts in the lower portion and the same at the higher portion for hot air release and sound air circulation. 

“Passive design aims to optimize the building form ,orientation ,façade design and space planning together with overall site layout to make maximum use of the natural environment in order to provide occupant comfort with minimum use of energy and mechanical systems. “ 


Summary and Conclusion 

Passive control design may not be the ultimate answer to satisfy occupants when it comes to outstanding comfort. But, by taking full advantage of natural and renewable energy resources before using any mechanical means or any active control system to ventilate the space is a sustainable approach that would contribute in mitigating climate change, reducing carbon emissions and even to zero energy consumptions. With these issues confronting world today, architecture in the Philippines must adapt or be responsive to the climate and the immediate context of its environment. Eventually therefore, when all of these technical norms and principles given are relatively and habitually observed, Passive Design with prime considerations on natural light and air will always be one Crucial Component of Change in the Cityscape. 

Truly enough , this will make ARCHITECTS AS CITY CHANGERS , indeed! 

References and Suggested Readings:
Department of Energy (DOE) –Guidelines for Energy Conserving Design of Buildings-Updated 2007
DOE-National Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program (NEECP)
DOE-Energy Management and Energy Audit (PowerPoint Presentation)
DOE-Energy Reform Agenda ((PowerPoint Presentation)
UAP Memorandum Circular No. 08, S. 2012 

Internet Websites:
Natural ventilation: Stack Ventilation
http://www.architecture.com/SustainabilityHub/Designstrategies/Air/1-2-.
http://www.humidifierinformation.com/optimum-humidity-levels.php
http://pinoygreenacademy.typepad.com/pinoy_green_academy/2010/01/the-first-ecohouse-in-cebu.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_building http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_of_the_Philippines
http://www.peaktoprairie.com/?D=205
Cross Ventilation in House Designs for Natural Passive Air Flow
http://janderson99.hubpages.com/hub/Cross-Ventilation-in-House-designs...
http://www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/resources/documents/Air_movement.pdf) What Rooms Do Not Require Natural Light & Ventilation? | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/list_7597999_rooms-require-natural-light-ventilation.html#ixzz1zBEQHDXs
http://www.sustainableschoolswales.org/sustainable_design_options/buildings/passive_design/climate/index.php

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